Ocean Water: Pressure
Even though we do not feel it, 14.7 pounds per square inch (psi),
or 1kg per square cm, of pressure are pushing down on our bodies
as we rest at sea level. Our body compensates for this weight by
pushing out with the same force.
Since water is much heavier than air, this pressure
increases as we venture into the water. For every 33 feet down
we travel, one more atmosphere (14.7 psi) pushes down on us. For
example, at 66 feet, the pressure equals 44.1 psi, and at 99 feet,
the pressure equals 58.8 psi.
To travel into this high-pressure environment we have to make some adjustments. Humans can travel three or four atmospheres and be OK. To go farther, submarines are needed.
Animals that live in this watery environment undergo large pressure changes in short amounts of time. Sperm whales make hour-long dives 7,380 feet (2,250 meters) down. This is a pressure change of more than 223 atmospheres! By studying and understanding how these animals are able to withstand great pressure changes, scientists will be able to build better tools for humans to make such journeys.