All ONR-Sponsored Nobel Laureates

W.E. Moerner - (Chemistry, 2014)

For the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy.

Arieh Warshel - (Chemistry, 2013)

For the development of multi-scale models for complex chemical systems. (More Warshel)

Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov - (Physics, 2010)

For groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene. (More Geim, Novoselov)

John L. Hall - (Physics, 2005)

For contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the so-called optical frequency comb technique.
General applications: Precise measurements; determination of the quantum structure of matter with ever-increasing accuracy, and the ability to further test fundamental theories.
Naval application: Precision timekeeping and measurements.

Theodor W. Hansch - (Physics, 2005)

For contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the so-called optical frequency comb technique.
General applications: Precise measurements; determination of the quantum structure of matter with ever-increasing accuracy, and the ability to further test fundamental theories.
Naval application: Precision timekeeping and measurements.

Robert H. Grubbs - (Chemistry, 2005)

For development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis.
General applications: The development of new drugs and other biologically active compounds, polymeric materials and industrial syntheses
Naval application: Improved medical treatments, new drugs, and new ìgreenerî materials.

Richard R. Schrock - (Chemistry, 2005)

For development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis.
General applications: The development of new drugs and other biologically active compounds, polymeric materials and industrial syntheses
Naval application: Improved medical treatments, new drugs, and new ìgreenerî materials.

Paul Lauterbur - (Medicine, 2003)

For his discoveries concerning "magnetic resonance imaging"
General applications: Medicine
Naval application: Naval medicine

John Fenn - (Chemistry, 2002)

For the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules.
General applications: Proteomics, pharmaceuticals & medicine
Naval application: Chemical sensor technology

Daniel Kahneman - (Economics, 2002)

For having integrated insights from psychological research into economic science, especially concerning human judgment and decision-making under uncertainty.
General applications: Gaining greater understanding of how people make quick decisions when information is sparse.
Naval application: Helping to understand how decisions get made in tense military situations under pressure.

Wolfgang Ketterle - (Physics, 2001)

For the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates.
General applications: Timekeeping; High bandwidth communications; Atom lasers
Naval application: Precision timekeeping; Highly precise geolocation; High bandwidth secure communication

Carl Wieman - (Physics, 2001)

For the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates.
General applications: Timekeeping; High bandwidth communications; Atom lasers
Naval application: Precision timekeeping; Highly precise geolocation; High bandwidth secure communication

Eric Cornell - (Physics, 2001)

For the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates.
General applications: Timekeeping; High bandwidth communications; Atom lasers
Naval application: Precision timekeeping; Highly precise geolocation; High bandwidth secure communication

Eric Kandel - (Medicine, 2000)

For discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system.
General applications: Neurology
Naval application: Biomimetics; Signal processing; Human-machine interface

Hideki Shirakawa- (Chemistry, 2000)

For the discovery and development of conductive polymers
General applications: Display technologies; Molecular electronics
Naval application: Mulitfunctional electronics for intelligent Naval sensors?; Decision support systems; Nanoelectronics

Alan G. MacDiarmid - (Chemistry, 2000)

For the discovery and development of conductive polymers
General applications: Display technologies; Molecular electronics
Naval application: Mulitfunctional electronics for intelligent Naval sensors?; Decision support systems; Nanoelectronics

Alan J. Heeger - (Chemistry, 2000)

For the discovery and development of conductive polymers
General applications: Display technologies; Molecular electronics
Naval application: Mulitfunctional electronics for intelligent Naval sensors?; Decision support systems; Nanoelectronics

Herbert Kromer - (Physics, 2000)

For developing semiconductor heterostructures in high-speed- and opto-electronics.
General applications: Electronics; Photonics
Naval application: Advanced sensors?; Advanced autonomous systems?; Information storage and retrieval; Information transmission

Ahmed Zewail - (Chemistry, 1999)

For his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy.
General applications: Physical chemistry; Material science
Naval application: Materials by design

Daniel C. Tsui - (Physics, 1998)

For discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations.
General applications: Particle physics
Naval application: Quantum computing

Walter Kohn - (Chemistry, 1998)

For development of the density-functional theory
General applications: Quantum chemistry; Chemcial engineering
Naval application: Chemical engineering

Horst L. Störmer - (Physics, 1998)

For discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations.
General applications: Particle physics
Naval application: Quantum computing

William D. Phillips - (Physics, 1997)

For development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light.
General applications: Particle physics; Nanotechnology; Precision timekeeping
Naval application: Precision timekeeping; Navigation

Richard E. Smalley - (Chemistry, 1996)

For discovery of carbon atoms bound in the form of a ball.
General applications: Material science
Naval application: Material science

George Olah - (Chemistry, 1994)

For his contribution to carbocation chemistry.
General applications: Chemical engineering; Organic chemistry; Fuel production
Naval application: Chemical engineering; Organic chemistry; Fuel production

John F. Nash Jr. - (Economics, 1994)

For pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games.
General applications: Modeling economic behavior, resource allocation and networking, behavior in biological/ecological systems, and artificial intelligence.
Naval application: Providing a greater understanding of and improving strategic and tactical military decision-making.

Rudolph A. Marcus - (Chemistry, 1992)

For contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems.
General applications: Chemical engineering; Chemiluminescence; Fuel production; Polymer science
Naval application: Material science; Corrosion resistance

Norman F. Ramsey - (Physics, 1989)

For contributions of importance for the development of atomic precision spectroscopy
General applications: Quantum physics; Communications; Navigation; Nanotechnology
Naval application: Space communications; Navigation; Precision timekeeping

Hans Dehmelt - (Physics, 1989)

For contributions of importance for the development of atomic precision spectroscopy
General applications: Quantum physics; Communications; Navigation; Nanotechnology
Naval application: Space communications; Navigation; Precision timekeeping

John C. Polanyi - (Chemistry, 1986)

For contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes.
General applications: Chemical engineering; Mechanical engineering
Naval application: Chemical engineering, Mechanical engineering

Yuan T. Lee - (Chemistry, 1986)

For contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes.
General applications: Chemical engineering; Mechanical engineering
Naval application: Chemical engineering, Mechanical engineering

Dudley Herschbach - (Chemistry, 1986)

For contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes.
General applications: Chemical engineering; Mechanical engineering
Naval application: Chemical engineering, Mechanical engineering

Herbert A. Hauptman - (Chemistry, 1985)

For outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures.
General applications: Biochemistry; Chemical engineering
Naval application: Biochemistry; Chemical engineering

Jerome Karle - (Chemistry, 1985)

For outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures.
General applications: Biochemistry; Chemical engineering
Naval application: Biochemistry; Chemical engineering

Gerard Debreu - (Economics, 1983)

For having incorporated new analytical methods into economic theory and for his rigorous reformulation of the theory of general equilibrium.
General applications: Helping to better understand how supply and demand relate to each other in a market economy or other uncontrolled system.
Naval application: How to improve strategic and tactical military decision-making and operations.

William A. Fowler - (Physics, 1983)

For theoretical and experimental studies of nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe.
General applications: Cosmology; Nuclear chemistry
Naval application: Nuclear chemistry

Kenneth Wilson - (Physics, 1982)

For his theory of critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions.
General applications: Oceanic and atmospheric science; Particle physics
Naval application: Oceanic and atmospheric science; Hydrodynamics

David H Hubel - (Medicine, 1981)

For discoveries concerning the "visual system"
General applications: Sensory physiology; Developmental physiology
Naval application: Human factors engineering

Roald Hoffman - (Chemistry, 1981)

For his theory concerning the course of chemical reactions
General applications: Biochemistry; Pharmacology; Chemical engineering
Naval application: Biochemistry; Chemical engineering; Naval medicine

Nicolas Bloembergen - (Physics, 1981)

For his contributions to the development of laser spectroscopy.
General applications: Spectroscopy; Atomic physics
Naval application: Spectroscopy; Highly accurate timekeeping

Arthur Schawlow - (Physics, 1981)

For his contributions to the development of laser spectroscopy.
General applications: Spectroscopy; Atomic physics
Naval application: Spectroscopy; Highly accurate timekeeping

Herbert C. Brown - (Chemistry, 1979)

For his development of the use of boron-containing compounds into important reagents in the organic synthesis.
General applications: Organic chemistry and biochemistry; Chemical engineering
Naval application: Chemical engineering

Herbert Simon - (Economics, 1978)

For his pioneering research into the decision-making process within economic organizations.
General applications: Management theory and technique; Organization sociology; Cybernetics
Naval application: Management practices; Organizational behavior; Cybernetics

Peter Mitchell - (Chemistry, 1978)

For his contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory.
General applications: Chemical engineering; Cell biology; Molecular biology
Naval application: Chemical engineering; Naval medicine; Material science

William Lipscomb - (Chemistry, 1976)

For his studies on the structure of boranes illuminating problems of chemical bonding.
General applications: Chemical engineering
Naval application: Chemical engineering

Paul J. Flory - (Chemistry, 1974)

For fundamental achievements, both theoretical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of macromolecules.
General applications: Polymer chemistry; Molecular biology
Naval application: Advanced composite materials

Christian Anfinsen - (Chemistry, 1972)

For work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation.
General applications: Virology; Biotechnology
Naval application: Naval medicine; DNA computers?

Robert Schrieffer - (Physics, 1972)

For a theory of superconductivity
General applications: Transportation; Electrical engineering; Computer science
Naval application: Electrical engineering; Computer science

Leon Cooper - (Physics, 1972)

For a theory of superconductivity
General applications: Transportation; Electrical engineering; Computer science
Naval application: Electrical engineering; Computer science

Gerald Edelman - (Medicine, 1972)

For discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies
General applications: Immunology; Biotechnology
Naval application: Naval medicine

Kenneth Arrow - (Economics, 1972)

For contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory.
General applications: Public policy; Management theory
Naval application: Management techniques

Har Gobind Khorana - (Medicine, 1968)

For devising methods for the synthesis of well-defined nucleic acids.
General applications: Virology; Biotechnology
Naval application: Naval medicine

George Wald - (Medicine, 1967)

For identifying visual pigments and their chemical precursors, and for discovering the primary molecular reaction to light in the eye.
General applications: Sensory physiology
Naval application: Human factors engineering; Biomimetics; Vision protection

Haldan Hartline - (Medicine, 1967)

For explaining impulse coding in the visual receptors and contributions to the understanding of how sensory neuronal networks process data.
General applications: Sensory physiology
Naval application: Human factors engineering

Hans Bethe - (Physics, 1967)

For his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars.
General applications: Nuclear chemistry
Naval application: Nuclear engineering

Charles H. Townes - (Physics, 1964)

For the invention of the maser and the laser.
General applications: Communications, surgery, data storage and retrieval, etc.
Naval application: Communications; Targeting; Sensor applications; Distance measuring; Ballistic missile defense; Data processing

Georg von Bekesy - (Medicine, 1961)

For explaining the physical events that take place within the human ear during hearing.
General applications: Audiology
Naval application: Hearing protection

Melvin Calvin - (Chemistry, 1961)

For explaining the second stage of photosynthesis
General applications: Plant physiology; Argonomy; Ecology
Naval application: Marine biology

Robert Hofstadter - (Physics, 1961)

For pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons.
General applications: Particle physics
Naval application: Nuclear engineering

Donald Glaser - (Physics, 1960)

For the invention of the bubble chamber, a device for observing the tracks of high energy subatomic particles.
General applications: Particle physics
Naval application: Hydrodynamic research

Severo Ochoa - (Medicine, 1959)

For synthesizing ribonucleic acid.
General applications: Virology; Biotechnology
Naval application: Naval medicine

Linus Pauling - (Chemistry, 1954)

For research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances.
General applications: Modern physical chemistry; modern biochemistry
Naval application: All chemical engineering applications: coatings, advances materials, etc.

Felix Bloch - (Physics, 1952)

For developing techniques of magnetic measurement in atomic nuclei.
General applications: Magnetic resonance imagery
Naval application: Naval medicine; nondestructive inspection

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